perennial plants

Perennial plants are herbaceous plants which die back to the ground during winter and grow back in spring. Some can be left undisturbed for years while others need to be divided every few years to maintain their vigour. You can find a perennial plant for any situation, whether it's a stone wall or a shady corner. Some are grown for their flower displays, others for their beautiful foliage. Evergreen perennials and half-shrubs are included in this category.

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Calceolaria - Slipper flower
 

The genus Calceolaria belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family. They are low growing plants with a basal rosette of leaves and pouch formed flowers. Most species are native to S-America. 

 

 
Caltha
 

Caltha is a genus in the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. They grow in moist soil along streams and ponds in cold temperate regions of both northern and southern hemispheres. One species (*) is native to Iceland.

Campanula - Bellflowers
 

Campanula is the largest genus in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, with over 500 species spread across the northern hemisphere, most around the Mediterranean across to the Caucasus.  The species are very diverse from prostrate high alpines, to tall meadow and woodland plants. Two species, Campanula rotundifolia and Campanula uniflora are native to Iceland (*). 

 

Catananche
 

Catananche is a small genus of five species in the aster family, Asteraceae, native to dry meadows of the mediterranean region.

 

Cerastium - Mouse ears
 

Cerastium is a genus of around 100 species in the Caryophyllaceae family,  with a global distribution, although most species are native to temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. They grow best in full sun in dry, poor soils.

 

Chelidonium - Celandine
 

Chelidonium  is a genus with only one species belonging to the poppy family, Papaveraceae. It grows in meadows in Europe and W-Asia and as an introduced species in N-America. 

 

Cicerbita - Blue sow thistles
 

Cicerbita, is a genus of around 20 species in the aster family, Asteraceae. Many are woodland plants native to Europe and Asia. 

 

Convallaria - Lily of the valley
 

Lily of the valley is the only species of the genus Convallaria, formerly in the lily family, but currently in the asparagus family, Asparagaceae.  It is a woodland plant, native to beech woods in Europe and Asia. 

 

Cortusa
 

Cortusa is a small genus in the primrose family, Primulaceae,  that bears a resemblance to primroses. Most species are spring flowering alpines native to mountains in S- and E-Europe, including the Alps and Carpathians, but a few species are native to China. 

 

Corydalis

Corydalis, is a large genus in the poppy family, Papaveraceae,  with over 300 species, the majority native to the Himalayas and China. Many are woodland plants which thrive in moist soil and semi-shade. 

 

Cymbalaria
 

Cymbalaria is a genus in the Plantaginaceae family, closely related to the genus Linaria. They are prostrate plants native to W-Europe and the Mediterranean region. 

 

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Delphinium - Riddarasporar
 

Delphinium is a large genus in the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, with around 300 species. Most are tall perennials with a distribution in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, reaching south to mountainous areas in Africa. Garden cultivars are numerous and more widely grown in gardens than the species.

 

 
Dianthus
 

Dianthus is a large genus in the family Caryophyllaceae, with around 300 species. The majority are distributed around the Mediterranean, reaching north into Europe and east to Asia. Most are mat forming plants that grow best in dry, gritty soil in full sun and are therefore well suited for rock gardens.

 

Dicentra - Hjartablóm

Dicentra, is a small genus in the poppy family, Papaveraceae with 8 species native to N-America and E-Asia. They have finely divided leaves and irregularly shaped flowers, often heart shaped. They grow in sun or semi-shade in fertile soil. A few species formerly classified in the Dicentra genus have been moved to four other genera, among them is Dicentra spectabilis, which is now the only species in the genus Lamprocapnos.

 

Digitalis - Foxglove
 

Digitalis, is a genus of around 20 species in the family Plantaginaceae.  They are tall plants with long flower spikes and a basal rosette of leaves. They are very poisonous. They are distributed around W- and SW-Europe, W- and Central Asia, Oceania and NW-Africa. 

 

Dodecatheon
 

Dodecatheon, is a small genus of similar species in the primrose family, Primulaceae, closely related to primroses, Primula.  The species are all very similar and difficult to identify. All are native to N-America and some also to NE-Asia.  They have a basal clump of leaves and the flowers have distinctive sepals that are twisted backwards. They need moist, fertile soil and can tolerate some shade.  

 

Douglasia
 

Douglasia, is a small genus of alpine plants in the primrose family, Primulaceae, closely related to Androsace. They are native to NW-America and NE-Asia and like other alpines they thrive best in gritty soil in full sun. 

 

Dracocephalum - Dragonheads
 

Dracocephalum, is a genus of about 60-70 species in the Lamiaceae family. The majority of species are native to Central-Europe and N-Asia. The species  commonly grown in Iceland grow best in dry, poor soils in full sun.

 

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